Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV. Other things also can increase your risk of cervical cancer such as multiple sexual partners, smoking.
The most important thing you can do to help prevent cervical cancer is to have regular screening tests starting at age 21. The Pap test (or Pap smear) and the HPV (human papillomavirus) test are specific tests used during screenings for cervical cancer. HPV vaccination can reduce the risk of cervical cancers by 80%. The HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical cancers.
Early on, cervical cancer may not typically cause noticeable signs and symptoms. Advanced cervical cancer may cause bleeding, including bleeding between periods, or discharge from the vagina that is not normal for you.
There are 2 types of tests used for cervical cancer screening: the Pap test (or Pap smear) and the HPV test.
Pap smear test will come back as “normal,” “unclear,” or “abnormal.” On the other hand an HPV test, it will come back as either “positive” or “negative.”
Treatment for cervical cancer depends on several factors, such as the stage of the cancer, other health problems you may have and your preferences. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
The risk of developing ovarian cancer gets higher with age. Most ovarian cancers develop after menopause. Most women who get ovarian cancer are not at high risk, but several factors may increase a woman’s risk such as nulliparity, hereditary genetic mutations.
There is no known way to completely prevent ovarian cancer, but some things are associated with a lower chance of getting it such as using oral contraceptives, removal of the fallopian tubes and or ovaries.
Ovarian cancer may cause several signs and symptoms. However majority are asymptomatic at early stages. Bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, trouble eating or feeling full quickly or feeling the need to urinate urgently or often may be the symptoms of ovarian cancer.
Since there is no simple and reliable way to screen for ovarian cancer, it is especially important to recognize warning signs and learn what you can do to reduce your risk. Annual examination with some blood tests or sonography can not be recommended at the moment.
Treatment for ovarian cancer usually involves a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.
Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer
Although certain factors can increase a woman’s risk for endometrial cancer, they don’t always cause the disease. Many women with risk factors never develop endometrial cancer. Most important risk factors are obesity and exposure to unopposed estrogen treatments.
Although there is no proven way to completely prevent this disease, you may be able to lower your risk with some changes in your life style, keeping at ideal weight, and healthy nutrition habits.
Uterine cancer may cause vaginal discharge or bleeding that is not normal for you. Uterine cancer may also cause other symptoms, such as pain or pressure in your pelvis. Most important symptom is a post-menapousal bleeding.
Since there is no simple and reliable way to screen for uterine cancer, it is especially important to recognize warning signs and learn what you can do to lower your risk. Currently there is no ideal and recommended test for screening endometrial cancers.
Uterine cancer is treated in several ways. It depends on the kind of uterine cancer and how far it has spread. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation.
Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers
Several factors may increase the chance that you will get vaginal or vulvar cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for vaginal and vulvar cancers. About 65% of vaginal cancers and about 50% of vulvar cancers are linked to HPV.
HPV vaccination can reduce the risk of vaginal and vulvar cancers. The HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that most often cause vaginal and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens who are 11 to 12 years old.
Symptoms of vaginal cancer may include vaginal discharge or bleeding, a change in bathroom habits, or pelvic pain. Vulvar cancer symptoms may include skin changes in the vulva or sores, lumps, or ulcers on the vulva.
Since there is no simple and reliable way to screen for vaginal or vulvar cancers, it is especially important to recognize warning signs and learn what you can do to lower your risk.
Vulvar and vaginal cancers are treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy with radiotherapy.